Ponds and lakes experience a phenomenon known as stratification where different layers of water are created due to differences in water density and temperature. The density of water is temperature dependent. It is at its greatest density at 4°C/39.2°F and becomes less dense at both higher and lower temperatures.
Aeration and applying beneficial microbes is the solution for this type of phenomenon. It continually keeps the water from becoming stagnant and stratified, and keeps oxygen levels high throughout the body of water.
Eutrophic Lakes (Very Nutrient-Rich, Problem Lakes)
Eutrophic Lakes are the most productive lakes, and thus support a very large biomass. These lakes are normally weedy and subject to frequent algae blooms yearly. There is often a large amount of accumulated organic matter on the bottom of the lake.
Eutrophic lakes support large fish populations, however, rough fish, like carp, are common in these lakes. Eutrophic lakes are susceptible to oxygen depletion during stratification, and shallow eutrophic lakes may be vulnerable to winterkill situations. Eutrophic lakes have low water clarity readings in relation to the depth of the lake and high phosphorus and chlorophyll readings. Most problems occur in Eutrophic Lakes. Nearly all urban lakes are now Eutrophic in nature
Water quality is obviously the most important factor to consider when determining the health of a pond or lake. The vast majority of recreational ponds and lakes are bombarded with nutrients from various sources. This process, known as Eutrophication, is responsible for the excessive growth of algae and aquatic plants as well as the buildup of organic sludge and offensive odors.
These ponds and lakes are typically very productive and can sustain large populations of fish and other aquatic life. However, they are more susceptible to oxygen crashes and fish kills.
Oligotrophic Lakes (Pristine Clear Lakes)
Oligotrophic Lakes are those that are generally clear, deep, have low primary production, and are clean pristine lakes. The food chain in oligotrophic lakes is very structured and is capable of sustaining a fishery of large game fish. These lakes tend to be the most aesthetically pleasing of lakes due to their clear blue water. In oligotrophic lakes, there is usually a very high measure of water clarity reading (in relation to the depth of the lake) and low phosphorus and chlorophyll readings
Eutrophication is a process that can be stopped and reversed in most situations by increasing oxygen levels with an aeration system, sonic technology and applying beneficial microbes to improve water quality and clarity. Taking a proactive approach to lake management will ensure the health and beauty of your pond or lake for years to come.
Chemicals Old Hazardous Treatment
The use of harmful chemical additives has been very common in the lake management industry for many years. Chemical herbicides and algaecides (copper sulfate) were the only option available for treating nuisance algae and aquatic plants. However they have no positive effect on water quality. By treating only the symptoms and not the cause of the problem, they provide no real solution.
Algaecides can often include harsh chemicals that may be harmful to plants, invertebrates, or fish . Chemicals can have an unseen effect on your biological filter. The good aerobic bacteria that keep your pond biologically clean are very sensitive to harsh chemicals. A large die-off of these bacteria can often lead to a buildup of excess nutrients, creating the very nuisance algae and weeds you were trying to get rid of in the first place. Because of its highly caustic nature, copper sulfate has been classified by the EPA as being in Toxicity Class 1, highly toxic, and requires the signal words ―DANGER – POISON on its container.
Additionally, if not used properly, chemical treatments can kill too much too fast, creating an oxygen depletion in the pond due to decaying dead plants.